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我是大一新生,我参加美国科研

本文作者C同学,品学兼优,目前是杭州一所普通大学的大一学生。C同学来自高级知识分子家庭,父亲是高校教师,母亲是高级工程师。

高考的时候发挥不理想,进入了普通大学读书。父母对于孩子的期盼是能够进入到美国名校读研究生。C同学本人也有更高的梦想,希望本科毕业后能够到美国最好的大学读研究生,还希望可以读博士。

为此,通过大学国际交流处的老师,了解到美国科研的招募情况,和父母商量后报名参与美国科研,增加学术背景,开拓视野,获得真知。

大一学生参与科研选拔,也有一些独特的优势,由于基础知识积累较少,有更多的思维兴趣点和思维空间,美国教授看重的是学生一张白纸,可以有更多的创造性。同时,大一、大二的学生,参与美国科研,期间表现优秀,努力为课题组贡献自己的价值,就会成为课题组的一员,未来可以再次参与科研(第2次参与科研的时候,只需要负担生活费即可)

下文是学生在美国大学科研学习期间所做的科研记录,向教授汇报PPT和科研结束时学生所写的科研报告(初稿),供其他学生及家长参考。

学生参与科研第一周总结

Abstract—The first weekly summary of the U.S. research program
Index Terms—Found the problem Clear problem Explicitly limit Put forward the task
I.DAY 1—OUR FIRST MEETING: INTRODUCE YOURSELF TO EACH OTHER

A.Introduce yourself to each other
Today we spoke our first Chinese sentence since we came to the United States
Today we almost thought I was going to be all-male

B.We formed a scientific research group like a small family
We learned each other’s names, and I found a guy who lived with me

II.DAY 2-LEARN HOW TO USE SOFTWARE AND SEARCH PAPERS

A.Clear the use of a lot of software
1)slack: Verbal communication
2)drop box: File transfer
3)app: Use of maps in American University

B.New member joins in
Her joining has added a lot of energy to our group

C.SC and program book
We received the program book and SC paper that the professor transmitted to us in dropbox

III.DAY 3-LOOKING FOR INFORMATION: FINDING FLAWS AND CHALLENGES

A.summary
Feedback and report on yesterday’s article of program kook and smart city

B.Search for papers
Divide the work into parts to find papers about SC.

C.Home work
l.Background data
2.Major challenges
3.Advance technologies
4.Interaction
5.Proposed topic for each of them
6.English resume

D.my direction
I refined my direction from smart medicine to sensors and data.

IV.DAY 4-Keep searching: Clear goals After the data inquiry, I gradually clear my research goal

A. A progressive process of clarifying research objectives

1)step1:Rough target: sensors and data
2)step2:Further goal: Sensor communications and cloud storage and data processing
3)step3:Clear goal: structuring unstructured medical data

V.DAY 5-READ MORE AND MORE: LOOK FOR SOLUTIONS

A. project project to project proposal
After knowing my direction, I am looking for more materials and articles

学以致用,科研结束后所写的科研总结报告。

C同学希望通过美国大学的科研学习,解决中国存在的问题。

       机器视觉在垃圾分类中的应用

写在前面的一句话:外国已经将机器视觉应用在垃圾分类的实际回收作业了,而国内却是还停留在理论阶段

                  引言

 垃圾一直是让各个国家头疼的问题,尤其对于人口过亿的人口大国。其中,垃圾分类被视为一项有效的推广措施,不过,并非所有人明确“可回收”与“不可回收”的定义,或者说对垃圾需要有更清晰的划分。

 

根据中国城市环境卫生协会2010年的统计数据显示,中国平均每年制造近10亿吨的各类垃圾,在这些垃圾中大概有4亿吨是生活类的垃圾,剩余5亿多吨则为建筑类垃圾。随着各种政策宣传和绿色环保的主流思想,垃圾分类成为一个值得思考的“智能化”应用场景。

 

本文将使用机器视觉系统来为工业机器安装“眼睛”,这样它们就可以根据我们人类的思维和想法更加智能地工作[1]。

传统的垃圾分类是人工自分类,效率低,成本高。基于机器视觉为基础的垃圾分类系统有效提高了垃圾分类效率,同时还降低了企业成本,且具有较高的精度,无论从行业的发展还是改革方面都意义非凡。

三、机器视觉在垃圾分类中的应用原理

随着生活节奏的加快和生活品质的提高,生活废弃物的数量迅速增加。因此,垃圾分拣效率已经被许多企业列为重点考察的部分。

1 垃圾特征提取及识别

图像提供的数据接近人类视觉,包含大量信息。从图像中提取有用的特征用于分析和识别是图像处理的基本问题[2]。为了实现分类,需要对工件进行特征模板提取和识别。预处理收集的图像,选择目标区域,提取目标区域中目标的特征,确定目标物的位置。
垃圾识别算法分为 2 部分:第一部分是机器的教学部分。通过标准模板CCD成像,待分类物体的模板被建立并存储在计算机硬盘中。第二部分是待测物体的识别部分,与CCD成像后的标准模板进行比较。此时,图像暂时存储在计算机中,以备后续使用[3]。其中,用相似度来判断是否为同类垃圾,如果是,则分拣至指定通道;否则,则继续进行循环判断。

2 图像预处理
……
(1)图像二值化处理
由于噪声等因素,采集的图像直接影响测量精度。需要进行预处理,以便将待检测的物体从不相关的背景中分离出来,并过滤掉这些不利因素[4]。二值化是指将图像中的LED灯与背景分离,并通过设置阈值使灯面板的边缘突出。阈值的选择非常重要,不正确的选择可能会将被测对象的信息归因于背景,或者将背景信息归因于被测对象。

(2)灰度变换
……
(3)加权平均滤方法
……
3 、边缘检测
……
4、环境中特定物体的识别与定位
对于环境中特定物体的识别与定位,模板匹配法是一个便捷、有效的方法[5]。基于特征点的模板匹配方法更适合光照和物体尺度变化较大的场合。SIFT 算法由LOWE D[8] 提出,其精度高、稳定性好,但其计算量大。LEPETIT V[9]将随机树分类算法应用到图像处理中,实现特征点的快速分类与匹配,并用图像模板对随机树分类器进行离线训练,有效地减少了在线识别时特征点匹配的计算量,提高了目标识别与定位的实时性并且有足够的精度。
5、机械臂抓取
……
图3 机械手的应用实例
为了使机械手能够准确快速地到达定位点,我们使用绝对坐标的线性插值命令行。
机器人可以根据视觉传感器、金属探测器和安装在手臂上的重量测量仪器收集的综合数据和触觉反馈,对垃圾堆中的金属、混凝土、木材和塑料等可回收材料进行分类。在操作过程中,待分类的废品被放置在传送带上,机器人的机械手将它们拾起并分析。如果能够识别这些类型,机器人会将它们放在不同的分类箱中。当这个系统扩展到全国时,它将能够通过一层楼梯来促进中国的环保事业。

Dear Professor,
I have just finished my interview and I think it went well. I started with a brief self-introduction and talked with the interviewer about my education background and my experience in participating science-related competitions.
He asked me the reason why I am interested in computer and machinery firstly. I told him that I was born in a family where both of my parents are engineers. Ever since I was a child , I have played CAD.I started to mess with single-chip microcomputer in my high school. Because of these experience in my childhood ,my strong interest in machinery ,design and computer was built.
Afterwards, he asked me what kind of computer language I had learned. I told him I had learned C-language programming and Java. Then he asked me if I could use Python. I was really worried about it because I have never learn Python systematically before. However, he told me gently that Python can connect various modules easily, especially C/C ++, and it can even modify images, sounds and videos. Then, he highly recommended that I should study it, which I feel is a very good suggestion because Python sounds so useful and powerful.
Thus after my interview, I searched online and found that Python has been used in the computer science and programming classes of MIT, which enhanced my determination to learn Python.
In the end of the interview, he recommended me an academic journal called Elsevier and some press like Springer and Taylor&Francis.
If I have the opportunity to spend one month at S, I hope to to obtain the maximum knowledge and achievements to help me realize my dream in the future, which is to have my own research on the combining of computer and machinery.
Thanks a lot for this valuable interview opportunity and the brilliant advice from my interviewer. I really hope that I can contribute my knowledge and skills to the research program and become a better scholar.
Thank You and the Best Wishes,

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